Summarise the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they case doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

The article and the lecture are both about the reasons Russian sailors heard the "quackers" sound in the1960s. While the author of the paper presents three possible theories for the source of the sound, the lecturer disputes the claims represented by the article. Her position is that there are some problems with the theories cited in the paper. According to the reading, the strange sounds may be related to ocra whales. He mentions that orca whales produce bizarre sounds when they want to attract the opposite gender. This specific argument is challenged by the lecturer. She said that orca whales live near the water's surface while the submarines are moving in the deep ocean. Therefore, it is implausible for submarines to detect their sounds. Secondly, the author suggests that the strange sound may be generated by giant squids. In the article, it is said that the sonar detectors can barely spot these sea creatures due to their soft bodies. The lecturer, however, asserts that the sound was first heard in the 1960s and continued for twenty years. But after this span, the sound vanished. She goes on to say that giant squids are living there by now, so there was no reason that the sound disappeared after twenty years. Finally, the author puts forth the idea that the source of this sound may be submarines with military technology that were secretly wandering in that area. He contends that it is possible that the submarine was equipped with undectable materials. In contrast, the lecturer's stance is that the source of the sound was moving swiftly and being changed in its direction. She notes that submarines also have an engine noise. She mentions that there is no technology for creating such a submarine engine.
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