Summarise the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they case doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
The reading and the lecture are both about Altruism, which is a type of behavior in animals to selflessly sacrifice their own interests to help others. The author of the reading believes that Altruism acts are prevalent among humans and other mammals. The lecturer casts doubt on the claims made in the article. He thinks that the examples of altruism exhibited are not ideal. First of all, the author points out that many species of animals show such behavior and the Meerkat is an example of that animal. It is mentioned that in a group of Meerkats, an individual takes up the role of a sentinel, and stands guard looking out for predator while the group members search for food or eat the food they have obtained. This point is challenged by the lecturer. He says that the sentinel Meerkat eats before standing guard. Furthermore, he argues that as he is the first to notice the predator, he can escape before others to a safe place. Secondly, the author contends that when the sentinel Meerkat notices a predator, it gives an alarm to alert other Meerkats. The article notes that the Meerkat has to escape alone after alerting others, so it places itself in grave danger as animals in a group can work together to fend off a predator. The lecturer rebuts this argument. He suggests the alarm is to signal the group to gather together or scatter in several directions. He elaborates on this by mentioning that the group's activity diverts the predator's attention and sentinel Meerkat can escape easily. Finally, the author states that humans perform acts of altruism by donating their kidneys to relatives or strangers. The article establishes that these people do not get any reward in return for performing such a good deed. The lecturer, on the other hand, posits that humans who donate organs to help others get approval and appreciation from society and it increases their self-worth. He puts forth the idea that for some people this increase in self-worth and approval from society is very valuable and is equivalent to a reward.
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